Energetic challenges in penguins: Physiological, Bioenergetics and molecular Adjustments

Because they have optimized the bioenergetic processes essential for their survival, marine birds from the polar and subantarctic regions are of outstanding interest. By an integrative physiological approach from the entire animal to gene expression, the deciphering of the adaptative energetic mechanisms developed by polar species at each critical steps of their living (reproduction, hatching, thermal emancipation) could improve our understanding and reveal potential targets for metabolic diseases.