Interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors in shaping offspring growth and adult phenotype: determinants of individual quality in the king penguin?

Our research program ECONERGY is devoted to the study of the physiological, energetic and evolutive aspects of the so-particular adaptations exhibited by adults and king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to their ashore living stages. These are characterized either in chicks by their extraordinary long growth period and the irregular feeding rates during the winter or in adults by their long-term fast during reproduction or molting. To answer our questions we realized studies via the study of the animal in his environment with an ecophysologist approach.