Interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors in shaping offspring growth and adult phenotype: determinants of individual quality in the king penguin ?

research program ECONERGY is devoted to the study of the physiological,
energetic and evolutive aspects of the so-particular adaptations exhibited by
adults and king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to their ashore living
stages. These are characterized either in chicks by their extraordinary long
growth period and the irregular feeding rates during the winter or in adults by
their long-term fast during reproduction or molting. To answer our questions we
realized studies via the study of the animal in his environnement with an
ecophysologist approach